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Badly Phrased, Contradictory, Doubtful or Wrong Questions

 
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K.Haroon
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PostPosted: Tue Mar 20, 2012 10:40 am    Post subject: Badly Phrased, Contradictory, Doubtful or Wrong Questions Reply with quote

Arrow Physiological problems due to increasing altitude are caused by:

a) accelerations
b) disorientation
c) decreased atmospherical pressure
d) increased atmospherical pressure

(b) and (c) both marked correct whereas only (c) is the right choice.


Arrow What is the purpose of respiration?

a) Intake of N2, which the living cells need for the metabolic process
b) Intake of CO2, which the living cells need for the metabolic process
c) Intake of CO2, which the living cells need for the metabolic process
d) Intake of NO2, which the living cells need for the metabolic process

(b) is marked correct.

This question is full of typographical errors. b and c are identical and wrong. d should have been O2 and not NO2 (to offer a right choice). I cant find any right answers in this.

In the human body, the oxygen is absorbed by the blood stream in the lungs, being then transported to the cells where an elaborated change process takes place. Oxygen plays a vital role in the breathing processes and in the metabolism of the living organisms. Probably, the only living cells that do not need oxygen are some anaerobic bacteria that obtain energy from other metabolic processes. The nutrient compounds, inside of the cell, are oxidized through complex enzymatic processes.This oxidation is the source of energy of most of the animals, mainly of mammals. The products are carbon dioxide and water (exhaled air has a relative humidity of 100%), which are eliminated by the human body through the lungs.


Arrow Which statement best defines hypoxia?

a) An abnormal increase in the volume of air breathed
b) A state of oxygen deficiency in the body
c) A condition of gas bubble formation around the joints or muscles
d) A condition of too low CO2 level in the blood

(d) is marked correct whereas (b) is the correct answer.


Arrow Which of the following statements about hypothermia is correct?

a) Vasodilation is the only regulant which is capable of reducing body temperature
b) Evaporation is more effective when ambient humidity is high
c) Performance is not impaired by an increase in body temperature to 40oC or more
d) Complete adaptation to the heat in a hot country takes about a fortnight <-- Marked Correct

The options suggest that the question should be about "Hyperthermia" and not "Hypothermia".


Arrow Auto-kinetic illusion is:

a) an illusion in which a stationary point of light, if stared at for several seconds in the day, may without a frame of reference appear to move
b) the sensation during a radial acceleration of seeing a fixed reference point moving into the opposite direction of the acceleration
c) a conflict between the visual system and bodily sensations
d) poor interpretation of the surrounding world

a) Marked correct. However it should be "DARK" not "DAY".


Arrow How is haze affecting your perception?

a) Objects seem to be further away than in reality
b) Objects will give better contrast
c) Haze makes the eyes to focus at infinity
d) Objects seem to be closer than in reality

(d) is marked correct whereas (a) is the correct answer.


Arrow Which system(s) should be trusted during flight through clouds and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC)?

a) Visual <-- Marked Correct
b) Vestibular
c) Proprioceptive
d) Combined function of all senses

In IMC you trust your instruments, but this option is not mentioned in the answers. I guess the closest choice will be visual if we consider that visual here means to look at the instruments.


Arrow The approximate time required for complete adaptation of the eye to the surrounding light is:

a) for night 10 sec and for day 30 min
b) for high levels of illumination 10 minutes and for low levels of illumination 30 minutes
c) for day and night: 30 min
d) for both day and night: 30 min

(d) is marked correct whereas the correct answer is not given in the options. Probably there is a typographical error in option "b". If it was 10 seconds instead of 10 minutes then it would have been the correct answer.


Arrow Conductive hearing loss can be caused by:

1. damage to the ossicles in the middle ear caused by infection or trauma
2. a damage of the auditory nerve
3. an obstruction in the auditory duct
4. a ruptured tympanic membrane

"1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct" has been marked corect whereas point not 2 is incorrect.

Conductive Hearing Loss occurs when there is a problem conducting sound waves anywhere along the route through the outer ear, tympanic membrane (eardrum), or middle ear (ossicles). This type of hearing loss may occur in conjunction with sensorineural hearing loss or alone.

Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SNHL) is a type of hearing loss in which the root cause lies in the vestibulocochlear nerve, the inner ear, or central processing centers of the brain.

This is also confirmed by another question in the database which is:

Conductive hearing loss can be caused by:

1. damage to the ossicles in the middle ear caused by infection or trauma
2. a damage of the auditory nerve
3. an obstruction in the outer ear
4. a ruptured tympanic membrane

1,3,4 Correct. 2 is False

Both the questions in the databse have the same wordings except for point no 3 which is:

3. an obstruction in the auditory duct (in which the correct answer marked says "1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct")

3. an obstruction in the outer ear (in which the correct answer marked says "1,3,4 Correct. 2 is False")


Arrow What is hypovigilance?

a) Hypovigilance (hypervigilance), is in its most acute forms, an extremely agitated state of panic or near panic. It is characterised by indiscriminate attention to all sports of minor and major threat cues, as the person frantically searches for means of escaping the anticipated danger
b) A rapid breathing pattern caused by stress
c) A rapid breathing pattern caused by fear
d) Both B and C are correct

a) Marked correct. This option appears to be about "Hypervigilance" and not "Hypovigilance". (seems a typographical error)


Arrow Human Error Rates:

Q.1. Human error rates during the performance of a simple and repetitive task can normally be expected to be approximately:

a) 1 in 10 <-- Correct
b) 1 in 50
c) 1 in 100
d) 1 in 250


Q.2. Which of the following human error rates can be described as both realistic and pretty good, after methodical training:

a) 1 in 100 times <-- Correct
b) 1 in 1000 times
c) 1 in 10000 times
d) 1 in 100000 times


Q.3. Which of the following human error rates can be described and pretty good realistic and pretty good after methodical training?

a) 1 in 100 times
b) 1 in 1000 times <-- Correct
c) 1 in 10,000 times
d) 1 in 100,000 times

Studies of human error rates during simple repetitive tasks have shown that errors can normally be expected on about 1 in 10 occasions. After methodical training, a rate of 1 in 100 is considered to be realistic and pretty good. (source: JAR Professional pilot studies by Phil Croucher)

Researchers have shown that in simple repetitive tasks humans make an error approximately once in every 100 occasions. However, this error rate can be significantly reduced (to about once in 1000 times) given the right conditions (combination of training and motivation) source: (http://www.atpforum.eu/showthread.php?t=12621)

Human error rates vary from about 1 in 100 for a simple repetitive task to about 1 in 1000 times for a complex and stimulating task.

As far as the exam question about human error rates is concerned, they are 3 in number.

If it is about simple repetitive task without mentioning of training (like in Q.1. mentioned above) then the answer is 1 in 10

However the other two questions (Q.2. and Q.3. mentioned above) have similar wordings but different answers.

The one (Q.2.) with proper question wording and no commas in the options has the answer 1 in 100

Whereas the other (Q.3.) has repetition in the question wordings (pretty good realistic and pretty good) and has commas in the option (10,000) and a question mark at the end - The correct answer marked for this one is 1 in 1000


Arrow Which of the following statements best characterise a self-centred cockpit?

a) While decreasing communication, the independence of each member bolsters the crew's energy
b) The high level of independence granted to each member by the captain quickly leads to tension between the various crew members
c) A passive approach by the captain allows decisions, choices and actions by other crew members
d) Each member carries out actions and makes choices without explicitly informing the other members about them

b) Marked correct. Whereas (d) is correct.


Arrow Environmental sources of stress in the cockpit could be:

1. noise and vibration
2. acceleration
3. radiation
4. extreme temperatures

a) 1, 2 and 4 <-- Correct
b) 1 and 4
c) 1, 2 and 3
d) 2 and 3

However in some other questions the correct answer is 1,2,3 and 4. Which is probably correct because radiation is also a stressor causing concern over a long term effect. Just because you can't see it doesn't mean it's not doing anything!


Arrow What is a pre-determined opinion?

a) A dominating crew member may have a very strong opinion of how to do a task and not be willing to listen to suggestions
b) The tendency to see or hear what we expect; this is also called mind sets
c) A plan or opinion is made before the flight is conducted
d) Pilots with pre-determined opinions are planning ahead; they often play the what if game to be prepared for the unexpected

C marked correct.


Arrow In an abnormal situation the pilot has an apparently correct explanation for the problem. The chance that he/she now ignores or devalues other relevant information, not fitting into his/her mental picture is:

a) decreasing
b) the same, no matter if he/she has already made up his/her mind
c) not applicable with old and experienced pilots
d) increasing

d) marked correct whereas (a) seems to be correct as mentioned in another question with similar wording:

Q. In an abnormal situation the pilot has an apparently correct explanation for the problem. The chance that he/she now ignores or devalues other relevant information, not fitting into his/her mental picture is:

a) not usual <-- Correct
b) very rare
c) not applicable with old and experienced pilots
d) not possible since correct training should have eliminated this problem

In an abnormal situation the pilot is more likely to consider relevant information which doesn't fit. The pilot is, or should be, looking for all possible clues to what is happening and why. Because it is an abnormal situation the pilot will not discard any information when trying to build up a mental picture of what is going on. During normal operations (or what is perceived to be normal operations) it is quite common for relevant information which does not accord with the perceived situation to be ignored. Source: (http://www.atpforum.eu/showthread.php?t=9074)

There are two important considerations here:
1) It is an abnormal situation and so you will be looking for all the clues you can find to check your understanding.
2) "The pilot has an apparently correct explanation"; it is only 'apparently' correct so he/she is still looking for confirmation of their assesment of the situation.

This is not a routine situation where the pilot is convinced that they have assessed things correctly and will ignore contractory facts; it is abnormal and there is some doubt so all information will be considered. Source: (http://www.atpforum.eu/showthread.php?t=3855)
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