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Flight Instruments (Technical Notes)

 
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K.Haroon
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PostPosted: Mon Aug 06, 2012 3:49 am    Post subject: Flight Instruments (Technical Notes) Reply with quote

Localizer Pointer and Scale

Scale turns amber and the pointer flashes:

• To indicate excessive localizer deviation (at low radio altitudes (below 500 RA), with the autopilot or flight director engaged).

• To indicate that the localizer is not captured (at low altitudes (below 1000 RA), with LNAV engaged and LOC armed).


Glideslope Pointer and Scale

Scale turns amber and the pointer flashes:

• To indicate excessive glideslope deviation (at low radio altitudes (below 500 RA), with the autopilot or flight director engaged).


Autopilot/Flight Director Barometric Source



L or R indicates that the left or right EFIS control panel is the barometric setting reference for the autopilot or flight director (the same indication is displayed on both PFDs).

Displayed when a flight director switch is ON or the autopilot is engaged.

• F/D – one turned on and one not on determines L or R

• F/D – both on – L is displayed

• A/P – first one pushed on determines L or R.


Maximum Speed and Maximum Maneuvering Speed



RED: Indicates maximum permissible airspeed as limited by the lowest of the following:

• Vmo/Mmo

• Landing gear placard speed, or

• Flap placard speed.

AMBER: When displayed, indicates maneuver margin to high speed buffet. Bottom of the bar is the airspeed that provides 1.3 g maneuver capability (or an alternative approved maneuver capability as preset by maintenance). Bar may be displayed when operating at high altitude at relatively high gross weights (1.3 g maneuver capability = 40 degrees bank capability in level flight)


Minimum Speed and Minimum Maneuvering Speed



RED: Indicates the airspeed where stick shaker activates.

AMBER: Indicates maneuver speed margin to stick shaker or low speed buffet. Top of the bar is the airspeed that provides:

• 1.3 g maneuver capability to stick shaker with flaps down.

• 1.3 g maneuver capability to stick shaker or VREF + 80, whichever is less, with flaps up below 20,200 FT.

• 1.3 g maneuver capability to low speed buffet (or an alternative approved maneuver capability as preset by maintenance), with flaps up above 20,200 FT.

Displayed with first flap retraction after takeoff (1.3 g maneuver capability = 40 degrees bank capability in level flight)

Stall Speed, Warning & Limitations on Maneuvering Flight



ND Modes

Weather radar and TCAS are not displayed in:

• CTR APP mode

• CTR VOR mode

• PLN mode

Basically not avaialble in all the CTR modes except MAP mode


Map Switches

• WXR – turns the weather radar on and off, and displays weather radar information.

• STA (station):

- displays high and low altitude navigation aids, if the ND range selector is in the 10, 20 or 40 NM range

- displays high altitude navigation aids, if the ND range selector is in the 80, 160, 320, or 640 NM range.

• WPT – displays waypoints, if the ND range selector is in the 10, 20 or 40 NM range.

• POS:

- displays ADIRU and GPS positions

- displays VOR raw data radials extended from the nose of the airplane to the stations displayed on the CDU NAV RAD page.


Instrument Source Select Panels

Arrow Navigation (NAV) Source Switch

OFF - (Normal Position) with the FMC selector in AUTO, the active FMC provides the information to generate the ND map. If both FMCs fail, the CDU provides navigation data.

CDU - (Non-Normal Position) The selected CDU generates the ND map. Normally the sources are: left ND map – left CDU and right ND map – right CDU.


Arrow Air Data / Attitude (AIR DATA/ATT) Source Switch

OFF – (normal position). ADIRU (Air Data Inertial Reference Unit) provides air data and attitude information to the PFD and ND. Alternate sources or the SAARU (Secondary Attitude Air Data Reference Unit) are automatically selected to replace ADIRU air data or attitude, as required.

ALTN – (non–normal position). The PFD and ND alternate air data/attitude source is selected as follows:

• air data (captain): SAARU single channel

• air data (first officer): ADIRU single channel

• attitude (captain and first officer): SAARU.


Arrow Display Control (DSPL CTRL) Source Switch

OFF – (normal position). Automatically selects display processing channels for the outboard and inboard (left/right) display pairs. Reconfigures display processing channels as required for display unit or processing channel failures.

ALTN – (non–normal position) An alternate display processing channel is selected to replace the current display processing channel.


Arrow Center Display Control (DSPL CTRL) Source Switch

Same as the display control source switches for the left and right inboard and outboard display units, except this switch controls the upper center and lower center display units.


Heading Reference (HDG REF) Switch

NORM: Normally references magnetic north

• automatically references true north when north of 82°N or south of 82°S latitude or within the vicinity of the magnetic poles (PFDs, NDs, and FMCs).

• provides no reference for AFDS roll modes other than LNAV when north of 82°N or south of 82°S latitude or in the vicinity of the magnetic poles.

TRUE: References true north regardless of latitude.

When the AFDS roll mode is HDG SEL (or TRK SEL), switching the heading reference switch from NORM to TRUE or TRUE to NORM engages the HDG HOLD (or TRK HOLD) mode.

Grid Heading is displayed on ND above 70 deg latitude


Display Select Panel

Pushing the switch displays the associated display. Pushing the same switch a second time blanks the display or (left and right inboard display units) redisplays the ND if there is only one page of messages. If there are more than one page of messages, pushing STAT pages through the messages.

STAT – status page:

• hydraulic system indications
• APU indications
• oxygen system indications
• status messages for dispatch determination


Integrated Standby Flight Display

Arrow Attitude Reset (ATT RST) Switch:

Push and hold at least two seconds -

• aligns horizon with the airplane symbol
• reset takes approximately ten seconds
• starts new initialization sequence if previous attempt failed (ground only).




Air Data Inertial Reference System (ADIRS)

The ADIRS provides:

• primary, secondary and standby air data
• inertial reference information.

The major components of the ADIRS are:

• one air data inertial reference unit (ADIRU): It is the primary source for speed, altitude, attitude and inertial navigation position information.

• one secondary attitude air data reference unit (SAARU): It is the secondary source for speed, altitude, and attitude information. It does not provide navigational position data.

• eight air data modules
• six static ports
• three pitot probes
• two angle–of–attack vanes
• one total air temperature probe.


























Non-Normal Checklist Icon

EICAS alert messages with associated incomplete or unaccessed checklist procedures are displayed with an icon (a white, empty box) to the left of the message. The icon indicates checklist status.

• Icon displayed:

- the checklist for the displayed message has not been accessed

- or the checklist has incomplete steps


• Icon not displayed:

– all checklist steps are complete

- there is no checklist procedure for the displayed message

- or another message is displayed whose corresponding checklist inhibits display of the icon
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