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Communication Failure Procedures

 
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K.Haroon
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PostPosted: Fri Nov 01, 2013 11:32 am    Post subject: Communication Failure Procedures Reply with quote

ICAO
Jeppesen - EMERGENCY - Comm Failure - ICAO - 23 NOV 2012

6.1 GENERAL RULES

6.1.1 An aircraft operated as a controlled flight shall maintain continuous air-ground voice communication watch on the appropriate communication channel of, and establish two-way communication as necessary with, the appropriate air traffic control unit, except as may be prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority in respect of aircraft forming part of aerodrome traffic at a controlled aerodrome. (Annex 2, 3.6.5.1)

Quote:
NOTE 1: SELCAL or similar automatic signalling devices satisfy the requirement to maintain a listening watch.

NOTE 2: The requirement for an aircraft to maintain an air-ground voice communication watch remains in affect after CPDLC has been established.


6.1.2 If a communication failure precludes compliance with 6.1.1, the aircraft shall comply with the communication failure procedures in 6.2 below, and with such of the following procedures as are appropriate. The aircraft shall attempt to establish communications with the appropriate air traffic control unit using all other available means. In addition, the aircraft, when forming part of the aerodrome traffic at a controlled aerodrome, shall keep a watch for such instructions as may be issued by visual signals. (Annex 2, 3.6.5.2)

6.1.2.1 If in visual meteorological conditions, the aircraft shall:

    a. Continue to fly in visual meteorological conditions;

    b. Land at the nearest suitable aerodrome; and

    c. Report its arrival by the most expeditious means to the appropriate air traffic control unit.

    (Annex 2, 3.6.5.2.1)


6.1.2.2 If in instrument meteorological conditions or when the pilot of an IFR flight considers it inadvisable to complete the flight in accordance with 6.1.2.1 the aircraft shall:

    a. Unless otherwise prescribed on the basis of regional air navigation agreement, in airspace where radar is not used in the provision of air traffic control, maintain the last assigned speed and level, or minimum flight altitude if higher, for a period of 20 minutes following the aircraft’s failure to report its position over a compulsory reporting point and thereafter adjust level and speed in accordance with the filed flight plan;

    b. In airspace where radar is used in the provision of air traffic control, maintain the last assigned speed and level, or minimum flight altitude if higher, for a period of 7 minutes following:

      1. The time the last assigned level or minimum flight altitude is reached; or

      2. The time the transponder is set to Code 7600; or

      3. The aircraft’s failure to report its position over a compulsory reporting point;

      Whichever is later, and thereafter adjust level and speed in accordance with the filed flight plan;


    c. When being radar vectored or having been directed by ATC to proceed offset using RNAV without a specified limit, rejoin the current flight plan route no later than the next significant point, taking into consideration the applicable minimum flight altitude;

    d. Proceed according to the current flight plan route to the appropriate designated navigation aid or fix serving the destination aerodrome and, when required to ensure compliance with e. below, hold over this aid or fix until commencement of descent;

    e. Commence descent from the navigation aid or fix specified in d. at, or as close as possible to, the expected approach time last received and acknowledged; or, if no expected approach time has been received and acknowledged, at, or as close as possible to, the estimated time of arrival resulting from the current flight plan;

    f. Complete a normal instrument approach procedure as specified for the designated navigation aid or fix; and

    g. Land, if possible, within thirty minutes after the estimated time of arrival specified in e. or the last acknowledged expected approach time, whichever is later.

    (Annex 2, 3.6.5.2.2)

Quote:
a. The provision of air traffic control service to other flights operating in the airspace concerned will be based on the assumption that an aircraft experiencing radio failure will comply with the rules in 6.1.2.2.

b. See also AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL — International Civil Aviation Organization Rules of the Air.



6.2 AIR-GROUND COMMUNICATIONS FAILURE

6.2.1 When an aircraft station fails to establish contact with the aeronautical station on the designated frequency, it shall attempt to establish contact on another frequency appropriate to the route. If this attempt fails, the aircraft station shall attempt to establish communication with other aircraft or other aeronautical stations on frequencies appropriate to the route. In addition, an aircraft operating within a network shall monitor the appropriate VHF frequency for calls from nearby aircraft. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.2.2.7.1.1)

6.2.2 If the attempts specified under 6.2.1 fail, the aircraft station shall transmit its message twice on the designated frequency(ies), preceded by the phrase “TRANSMITTING BLIND” and, if necessary, include the addressee(s) for which the message is intended. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.2.2.7.1.2)

Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS) Recommendation — In network operation, a message which is transmitted blind should be transmitted twice on both primary and secondary frequencies. Before changing frequency, the aircraft station should announce the frequency to which it is changing. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.2.2.7.1.2.1)


6.3 RECEIVER FAILURE

6.3.1 When an aircraft station is unable to establish communication due to receiver failure, it shall transmit reports at the scheduled times, or positions, on the frequency in use, preceded by the phrase “TRANSMITTING BLIND DUE TO RECEIVER FAILURE”. The aircraft station shall transmit the intended message, following this by a complete repetition. During this procedure, the aircraft shall also advise the time of its next intended transmission. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.2.2.7.1.3.1)

6.3.2 An aircraft which is provided with air traffic control or advisory service shall, in addition to complying with 6.3.1, transmit information regarding the intention of the pilot-in-command with respect to the continuation of the flight of the aircraft. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.2.2.7.1.3.2)

6.3.3 When an aircraft is unable to establish communication due to airborne equipment failure it shall, when so equipped, select the appropriate SSR code to indicate radio failure. (Annex 10, Vol II, 5.2.2.7.1.3.3)


6.4 TRANSPONDER PROCEDURES — RADIO COMMUNICATION FAILURE

6.4.1 The pilot of an aircraft losing two-way communications shall set the transponder to Mode A Code 7600. (Doc 8168, Vol I, Part III, Section 3, Chapter 1, 1.5)

Quote:
A controller who observes an SSR response indicating selection of the communications failure code will determine the extent of the failure by instructing the pilot to SQUAWK IDENT or to change code. If it is determined that the aircraft receiver is functioning, further control of the aircraft will be continued using code changes or IDENT transmission to acknowledge receipt of clearances. Different procedures may be applied to Mode S equipped aircraft in areas of Mode S coverage.



EUROPE
Jeppesen - EMERGENCY - Comm Failure - Europe - 02 JAN 2009

ACTION IN THE EVENT OF AIR GROUND COMMUNICATION FAILURE

As soon as it is known that two-way communication has failed, ATC shall maintain separation between the aircraft having the communication failure and other aircraft based on the assumption that the aircraft will operate in accordance with VMC or IMC.


VISUAL METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS

A controlled flight experiencing communication failure in VMC shall:

1. Set transponder to Code 7600;

2. Continue fly in VMC;

3. Land at the nearest suitable aerodrome, and

4. Report its arrival time by the most expeditious means to the appropriate ATS unit.


INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS

A controlled flight experiencing communication failure in IMC, or where it does not appear feasible to continue in VMC shall:

1. Set transponder to code 7600;

2. Maintain for a period of 7 minutes the last assigned speed and level or the minimum flight altitude, if the minimum flight altitude is higher than the assigned level. The period of 7 minutes commences:

    a) If operating on a route without compulsory reporting points or if instructions have been received to omit position reports:

      => At the time the last assigned level or minimum flight altitude is reached, or

      => At the time the transponder is set to Code 7600, whichever is later, or

    b) if operating on a route with compulsory reporting points and no instruction to omit position report has been received:

      => At the time the last assigned level or minimum flight altitude is reached, or

      => At the previously reported pilot estimate for the compulsory reporting point, or

      => At the time of a failed position report over a compulsory reporting point, whichever is later;

Quote:
The period of 7 minutes is to allow the necessary air traffic control and coordination measures.


3. Thereafter, adjust level and speed in accordance with the filed flight plan;

Quote:
With regard to changes to level and speed, the filed flight plan, which is the flight plan as filed with an ATS unit by the pilot or a designated representative without any subsequent changes, will be used.


4. If being radar vectored or proceeding offset according to RNAV without a specified limit, proceed in the most direct manner possible to rejoin the current flight plan route no later than the next significant point, taking into consideration the applicable minimum flight altitude;

Quote:
With regard to the route to be flown or the time to begin descend to the arrival aerodrome, the current flight plan, which is the flight plan, including changes, if any, brought about by subsequent clearances, will be used.


5. Proceed according to the current flight plan route to the appropriate designated navigation aid serving the destination airport and, when required to ensure compliance with para 6 below, hold over this aid until commencement of descent;

6. Commence descent from the navigational aid specified in para 5 above at, or as close as possible to, the expected approach time last received and acknowledged or, if no expected approach time has been received and acknowledged, at or as close as possible to, the estimated time of arrival resulting in the current flight plan;

7. Complete a normal instrument approach procedure as specified for the designated navigation aid, and

8. Land, if possible, within 30 minutes after the estimated time of arrival specified in para 6 above or the last acknowledged expected approach time, whichever is later.

Quote:
Pilots are reminded that the aircraft may not be in an area of secondary surveillance radar coverage.
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