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A310 Flight in Severe Turbulence

 
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K.Haroon
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PostPosted: Wed Jan 19, 2011 5:22 am    Post subject: A310 Flight in Severe Turbulence Reply with quote

A310 FLIGHT IN SEVERE TURBULENCE
FCOM>>Procedure and Techniques>Inclement Weather Operation
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Identification of Sever/Extreme Turbulence:

- Large, abrupt changes in altitude and/or attitude.

- Usually large variation in airspeed.

- Passengers and crew moved violently against their seat belts.

- Loose objects move around the aircraft.


Clear Air Turbulence - CAT:

- Vertical wind shear gradient (rate of change or shear rate) greater than 5 kt/1000 feet.

- Horizontal wind gradient (rate of change) greater than 40 kt/100 nm.

- Horizontal temperature gradient (OAT/SAT rate of change) greater than 4 deg C/100 nm.

- Route is close to the polar side of a jet stream exceeding 100 knots.

- Route is close to an altitude trough of low pressure.


Flight Planning:

- Assess the potential for experiencing severe turbulence through weather charts, upper wind forecast, Airmet or Sigmet messages.

- Plan to avoid areas of forecast severe turbulence.

- If avoiding is not possible then cruise altitude and mach number should be selected at or below the optimum altitude for sufficient buffet margin.


Preparation for Severe Turbulence:

- Seat belts/No Smoking Sign ON.

- Ignition on CONT Relight.

- Autopilot in Command (do not use CWS mode).

- Fly in LVL Change or ALT hold mode.

- Auto Thrust engaged.

- Set Target Speed and Target N1 (QRH 13.04).

- Consider descent at or below optimum altitude.

- Trim Tank Mode Forward (for forward CG).

- Secure loose equipment in flight deck.

- Fasten or Tighten Seatbelt/Shoulder harness.


When in Severe Turbulence:

In addition to the preparation actions do the following:

- Disconnect Auto Thrust.

- Set Target Thrust (minimize thrust changes and allow airspeed excursions within operating and buffet margin limits).

- Descend at or below Optimum Altitude (which ensures at least 1.4g buffet margin).

- Disconnect Auto Pilot if it does not perform as desired.

- Maintain Pitch Attitude / Wings Level (attitude has priority over altitude).
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